“Political economy begins with the fact of private property; it does not explain it. It conceives the material process of private property, as it occurs in reality, in general and abstract formulas which then serve it as laws… Thus we have now to grasp the real connexion between whole system of alienation — private property, acquisitiveness, the separation of labor, capital and land, exchange and competition , value and the devaluation of man, monopoly and competition — and the system of money.”

[Karl Marx, “Alienated Labor; Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts”. in Karl Marx; Early Writings, McGraw-Hill Book Company: New York, 1964, p.120-121.]


“Nature does not produce on the one side owners of money or commodities, and on the other men possessing nothing but their own labour-power. This relation has no natural basis, neither is its social basis one that is common to all historical periods . . . the economic categories already discussed by us, bear the stamp of history. Definite historical conditions are necessary that a product may become a commodity.”

[Karl Marx, Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Volume I, Progress:Moscow, Publishers, 1887, p. 118.]


Communism as the positive transcendence of private property as human self-estrangement, and therefore as the realappropriation of the human essence by and for man; communism therefore as the complete return of man to himself as asocial (i.e., human) being – a return accomplished consciously and embracing the entire wealth of previous development. This communism, as fully developed naturalism, equals humanism, and as fully developed humanism equals naturalism; it is thegenuine resolution of the conflict between man and nature and between man and man – the true resolution of the strife between existence and essence, between objectification and self-confirmation, between freedom and necessity, between the individual and the species. Communism is the riddle of history solved, and it knows itself to be this solution.”

[Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Progress: Moscow: Publishers, 1959, p. 43.]


“A spectre is haunting Europe — the spectre of Communism. All the powers of old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this spectre: Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French Radicals and German police-spies.

Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as Communistic by its opponents in power? Where the Opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries?”

(Manifesto of the Communist Party, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, Selected Works in Two Volumes, Volume I, Foreign Languages Publishing House: Moscow, 1962, p.33.]



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